The catalytic principle of many organic reactions is broadly divided into three steps:

  1. oxidative addition
  2. transmetallation
  3. reductive elimination

Because of the empty (i.e., not fully occupied by electrons) d orbital properties of transition metal elements, they can allow external electrons to enter to facilitate reduction reactions.

One of the transition metals, palladium, is the 3d orbital, and the 3d electrons themselves are easier to lose for oxidation reactions because they are farther away from the nucleus. This is why palladium-based catalysts are chosen for many organic reactions, such as coupling reactions.

There are so many kinds of Palladium catalysts on the market. The following is a summary of the names, CAS numbers and structures of commonly used palladium catalysts for your reference.

Product NameStructureCAS NO.
Palladium(II) acetate3375-31-3
Palladium(II) chloride7647-10-1
Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0)14221-01-3
Tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0)51364-51-3
Bis(dibenzylideneacetone)palladium(0)32005-36-0
PdCl2(PPh3)213965-03-2
[1,1′-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]
dichloropalladium(II)
72287-26-4
Pd(dppf)Cl2 · CH2Cl295464-05-4
Bis(benzonitrile)palladium(II) chloride14220-64-5
1,4-Bis(diphenylphosphino)butane-
palladium(II) chloride
29964-62-3
Bis(acetonitrile)dichloropalladium(II)14592-56-4
PEPPSI™-SIPr catalyst927706-57-8
Dichlorobis(methyldiphenylphosphine)palladium(II)52611-08-2
trans-Benzyl(chloro)bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II)22784-59-4
[(SIPr)PdCl2]2627878-09-5
P(t-Bu)3 Pd G21375325-71-5
[(R)-(+)-2,2′-Bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1′-
binaphthyl]palladium(II) chloride
115826-95-4
Palladium(π-cinnamyl) chloride dimer12131-44-1
PEPPSI™-IPr catalyst905459-27-0
PdCl2(dtbpf)95408-45-0
PdCl2[P(o-Tol)3]240691-33-6
Dichlorobis(tricyclohexylphosphine)palladium(II)29934-17-6
PdCl2(dppe)19978-61-1
PdCl2(dippp)59831-02-6
Pd(amphos)Cl2887919-35-9
Pd(t-Bu3P)253199-31-8
Dichlorobis(di-tert-butylphenylphosphine)palladium(II)34409-44-4
RuPhos Pd G11028206-60-1
RuPhos Pd G21375325-68-0
RuPhos Pd G31445085-77-7
Xphos Pd G11028206-56-5
Xphos Pd G21310584-14-5
Xphos Pd G31445085-55-1
BrettPhos Pd G1/
BrettPhos Pd G31470372-59-8
XantPhos Pd G3/
DavePhos Pd G31445085-87-9
Aphos Pd G3/
cataCXium® A Pd G3/
DPPF Pd G3/

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